List the human values 

(a) Morality

principles concerning the distinction between right and wrong or good and bad behaviour.

(b) Civic virtues

Civic virtue is morality or a standard of righteous behavior in relationship to a citizen’s involvement in society

 (c) Integrity

the quality of being honest and having strong moral principles.

 

(d) Courage

the ability to do something that frightens one; bravery.

(e) Respect to others

respect for others

(f) Commitment

the state or quality of being dedicated to a cause, activity, etc.

(g) Caring and sharing

displaying kindness and concern for others.

(h) Sympathy 

feelings of pity and sorrow for someone else’s misfortune

(i) Self-confidence

The concept of self-confidence is commonly used as self-assurance in one’s personal judgment, ability, power, etc

(j) Empathy

the ability to understand and share the feelings of another.

 

Explain various actions of an engineer leading to dishonesty.

1. Lying: Honesty implies avoidance of lying. Engineer may communicate wrong or distorted testresults intentionally or otherwise. It is giving wrong information to the right people. 

2. Deliberate deception: Engineer judges or decides on matters which he is not familiar or with insufficient data or proof, to impress upon the customer or employer. It is selfdeceit. 

3. Withholding the information: Hiding the facts during communication to one’s superior or subordinate, intentionally or otherwise. 

4. Not seeking the truth: Engineers accept the information or data, without applying their  mind and seeking the truth. 

5. Not maintaining confidentiality: It is giving right information to wrong people.

6. Giving professional judgment under the influence of extraneous factors such as personal  benefits and prejudice. The laws, experience, social welfare, and even conscience are  given a go-by

 

List various principles of Duty Ethics

W.D. Ross, the British philosopher has listed the duties that reflect our moral convictions:

1. Fidelity : duty to keep promises.

2. Reparation : duty to compensate others when we harm them.

3. Gratitude : duty to thank those who help us.

4. Justice : duty to recognize merit.

5. Beneficence : duty to improve the condition of others.

6. Self-improvement : duty to improve virtue and intelligence.

7. Non-malfeasance : duty not to injure others.

 

LIST OF DIFFERENT ETHIC THEORIES 

 

1.Define Ethics?

 Study of right or wrong , Good and evil, Obligations and rights.

2.Define Engineering Ethics?

1.Study of the moral issues and decisions conforming individuals and organization engaged in engineering/profession

2.Study of related questions about the moral ideals, character, policies and relationship of
people and corporations involved in technological activity

3.Moral standards/ values and system of morals

 

3.Differential Moral and Ethics?

Moral : Refers only to personal behavior, Refers to any aspect of human action, Social conventions about right or wrong conduct

Ethics : Involves defining, analyzing, evaluating and resolving moral problems and developing moral criteria to guide human behavior, Critical reflection on what one does and why one does it. Refers only to professional behavior

 

4.Differentiate Micro-ethics and Macro-ethics?

Micro-ethics : Deals about some typical and everyday problems which play an important role in the field of engineering and in the profession of an engineer. 

Macro-ethics : Deals with all the social problems which are unknown and suddenly burst out on a regional or national level

 

5.What are the three types of Inquiry?

Normative inquiry – Based on values  

Conceptual Inquiry – Based on meaning  

Factual Inquiry – Based on facts

 

 

6.Give the need for Authority?

Authority provides the framework in which learning can take place

 

7.Define Integrity?

Integrity is the bridge between responsibility in private and professional life

 

8.Give the two aspects of Honesty?

Truthfulness – meeting responsibilities concerning truth-telling

Trustworthiness – Meeting responsibilities concerning trust

 

9.What are the types of theories about morality?

 Virtue ethics-virtues and vices

 Utilitarianism-most good for the most people

 Duty ethics-Duties to respect people

 Rights ethics-Human rights

 

10.What are the general features of morally responsible engineers?

 Conscientiousness

comprehensive perspective.

Autonomy.

Accountability.

 

11.Define code?

Code is a set of standards and laws.

 

12.Define Risk?

A risk is the potential that something unwanted and harmful may occur.

Risk = Probability × Consequences

 

13. Define a disaster?

A disaster = A seriously disruptive event + A state of unpreparedness.

 

14.How will an engineer assess the safety?

The risks connected to a project or product must be identified.

The purposes of the project or product must be identified and ranked in importance.

Costs of reducing risks must be estimated.

 The costs must be weighed against both organizational goals and degrees of acceptability of risks to clients and the public. 

The project or product must be tested and then either carried out or manufactured.

 

15.What are the reasons for Risk-Benefit analysis?

(i) Risk-benefit analysis is concerned with the advisability of undertaking a project.

(ii) It helps in deciding which design has greater advantages.

(iii) It assists the engineers to identify a particular design scores higher with that of the another one

16.Define Risk-Benefit Analysis?

Risk benefit analysis is a method that helps the engineers to analyze the risk in a project and to determine whether a project should be implemented or not. In risk benefit analysis, the risks and benefits of a product are allotted to money amounts, and the most benefits able ratio between risks and benefits is calculated.

 

16.What is the use of Risk-Analysis? What are the three factors involved here?

Risk Analysis is used for the assessment of the hazardous associated with an industrial or commercial activity. It involves identifying the causes of unwanted hazardous events and estimating  the consequences and likelihood of these events. Three factors involved in this are : 

(a) Hazard Identification

(b) Consequences analysis

(c) Probability estimation

 

17.Explain the two types of Risks?

(i) Personal Risk:

An individual, who is given sufficient information, will be in a position to decide whether to take part in a risky activity or not. They are more ready to take on voluntary risks than involuntary  risks. 

(ii) Public Risks:

Risks and benefits to the public are more easily determined than to individuals, as larger number of people are taken into account. Involuntary risks are found here.

 

18.What does Strict Liability mean?

Strict liability means if the sold product is defective; the manufacturer concerned is liable for any harm that results to users. Negligible is not at all an issue based.

 

19.Define Conflicts of Interest?

Conflict of interest is a situation in which two or more interests are not simultaneously realizable.

It is the disagreement between public obligation and self-interest of an official.

 

20. Why does a conflict of interests arise?

a. Financial Investments

b. Insider Trading

c. Bribe

d. Gifts

e. Kickbacks

 

21. What is a Bribe?

A Bribe is a substantial amount of money or goods offered beyond a stated business contract with the aim of winning an advantage in gaining or keeping the contract. 

 

22. What is a Gift?

Gifts are not bribes as long as they are small gratuities offered in the normal conduct of business.

 

23.What is called Kickbacks?

Prearranged payments made by contractors to companies or their representatives in exchange for contracts actually granted are called kickbacks.